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How to make a Critical to Quality tree (tips & examples)

PostsDesign & UX
Georgina Guthrie

Georgina Guthrie

November 08, 2023

What do we mean when we talk about ‘quality’? Is it a subjective term colored by personal preferences? If one person calls something ‘high quality’, while another calls it rubbish, is there any real way to measure it?

In the realm of process improvement and Six Sigma, a concept has emerged that clarifies the matter. This concept is ‘Critical to Quality’ or CTQ for short. 

What does ‘Critical to Quality’ mean?

Critical to Quality is a list of essential features a product or process needs to have. These features are measurable. They’re also vital for the product to work as intended and meet the needs of its users.

CTQ is a commitment to understanding and delivering exactly what the customer values most. As businesses evolve and markets shift, CTQs may change. Thus, staying attuned to them is a continual journey — one that offers big rewards for the businesses that prioritize it.

Two real-world examples

Imagine purchasing a smartphone. What aspects of that phone are indispensable for you? It might be battery life, camera quality, speed, or screen resolution. These are the factors you deem ‘critical’ for the phone to serve its purpose. Similarly, different industries and sectors have different CTQs based on the needs and preferences of their customers.

Another example? Imagine you’re the chef of a Michelin-star restaurant, and your signature dish needs three special ingredients to wow your diners. In the world of products and services, Critical to Quality (CTQ) is like that list of top-tier ingredients. They are the must-have features that ensure a product shines and meets every customer’s expectations. If even one falls short, the whole experience could be compromised. Simply put, CTQ pinpoints what’s absolutely vital for making customers smile.

CTQ: A cornerstone of customer satisfaction

While CTQs might seem straightforward, identifying them is an intricate process. 

It starts by understanding the voice of the customer (VOC), which encompasses their needs, preferences, and expectations. Once the VOC is clear, you can work out your CTQs and from there make sure every product or service aligns with what customers deem essential.

Businesses need to understand and prioritize these CTQs. If an organization focuses its energy and resources on aspects that customers don’t value, it risks wasting resources and missing the mark in terms of customer satisfaction. On the other hand, by zeroing in on the right CTQs, businesses can not only meet but often exceed customer expectations and pull ahead of the competition.

The benefits of CTQ

Here’s why you should make CTQ a cornerstone of your business strategy.

Understanding the voice of the customer

1. Deeper insights: Embracing CTQ gives you a closer look into the customers’ mindset. It’s not just about numbers; it’s about matching your offering with genuine customer desires and using CTQ to fine-tune your products or services along the way. 

Boosting efficiency

1. Resource optimization: Recognizing what’s essential through CTQ allows businesses to focus their resources effectively, whether it’s time, money, or person-power. This strategic allocation minimizes waste and maximizes returns.

2. Clear targets: CTQ translates vague aspirations into specific, measurable objectives. With clear benchmarks in place, teams can move forward with purpose.

Driving growth

1. Increased customer satisfaction: When CTQs are met or exceeded, customer satisfaction invariably skyrockets. A contented customer often returns and can turn into a brand advocate, championing your business to peers.

2. Competitive advantage: In markets saturated with seemingly identical products or services, CTQs can be a game-changer. Delivering on these specific quality metrics helps you stand out.

3. Higher profitability: Effective attention to CTQs can lead to fewer product returns and reduced customer complaints. This operational efficiency directly boosts your bottom line.

Building a strong brand reputation

1. Trust and reliability: Meeting CTQ standards consistently fortifies a brand’s image as reliable and trustworthy. Over time, this establishes a foundation of trust, encouraging customers to return.

2. Positive word of mouth: When CTQs are spot on, satisfied customers often share their positive experiences. Endorsements like this can significantly sway potential customers.

What is a CTQ tree?

Think of it as a map that breaks down a big goal, like keeping a customer happy, into smaller, specific details. It’s like zooming into what truly matters. 

With a CTQ tree, we start with a broad objective and then branch out into the more granular features and standards a product or process needs. It helps you hit the mark every time and leave no room for guesswork. So, if you ever wonder, ‘What does my product absolutely NEED to be a success?’ the CTQ tree is your go-to guide.

Here’s what one looks like (via

Components of a CTQ tree

Needs: The foundation of the CTQ tree

At the highest level of a CTQ tree are the customer needs. These encapsulate the general expectations, desires, or problems expressed by the customers. They’re often broad and represent overarching outcomes that the customer hopes to achieve with a product or service. For instance, in the realm of smartphones, a need might be ‘reliable communication.’

Drivers: Bridging needs and specific requirements

Emerging from these broad needs are the drivers. Think of these as the specific attributes or features that address or fulfill the stated needs. They’re the factors that ‘drive’ the satisfaction of a need. Continuing our smartphone example, under the need for ‘reliable communication,’ drivers might include ‘strong signal reception’ and ‘clear voice quality.’

Requirements: The measurable outcomes

From the drivers, we branch out further into the specific requirements. These are the quantifiable, actionable details linked to each driver. They provide a clear metric or benchmark that needs to be achieved to satisfy the associated driver and, by extension, the overarching need. To keep with our example, for the driver ‘strong signal reception,’ a requirement could be ‘99% uptime in urban areas,’ and for ‘clear voice quality,’ it could be ‘less than 1% call distortion rate.’

To put it all together, a CTQ tree visually maps out the journey from a broad customer need, through the specific attributes or features (drivers) that address this need, to the detailed, measurable outcomes (requirements) that signify the need has been met. 

CTQ tree: A real-world example

To truly grasp the essence of the CTQ tree, sometimes it’s best to look at a practical example. Let’s walk through a fictitious yet relatable scenario: imagine we’re considering a coffee shop aiming to enhance the customer experience.

Needs: The essence of customer desires

Our primary need, as expressed by frequent visitors, might be: ‘A more enjoyable coffee experience.’

Drivers: Key aspects influencing the need

Breaking down this need, we identify a few drivers that customers associate with an enjoyable coffee experience:

1. Flavorful coffee: This is paramount, of course. The essence of visiting a coffee shop is to relish a cup that tantalizes the taste buds.

2. Quick service: Nobody wants to wait too long for their coffee, especially during morning rushes.

3. Comfortable ambiance: A coffee shop isn’t just about the coffee. It’s also about the atmosphere, the space where people relax, work, or catch up with friends.

Requirements: The measurable details

Diving deeper, let’s get into the specifics for each driver:

1. Flavorful coffee: 

  • Beans must be sourced from top-quality providers, ensuring freshness.
  • The coffee should maintain a consistent taste, with a deviation of less than 5% between batches.

2. Quick service:

  • Orders should be ready within 3-5 minutes during peak times.
  • Digital orders, such as through an app, should be prepared and kept ready by the estimated pickup time.

3. Comfortable ambiance:

  • Seating should be available for at least 90% of customers, even during peak times.
  • The noise level should remain below 75 decibels to facilitate conversations or focused work.
  • Indoor temperature should be maintained between 68°F to 72°F for optimal comfort.

So, visualizing this in a CTQ tree format, we’d have ‘A more enjoyable coffee experience’ at the top, branching out into our three drivers, and each of those drivers would further branch out into their respective detailed requirements.

The beauty of this tree is how it transforms a subjective desire (‘A more enjoyable coffee experience’) into actionable, quantifiable targets. It serves as a guide, helping the coffee shop focus its efforts efficiently, ensuring each sip and moment spent in the shop aligns closer to the customer’s ideal coffee experience.

How to create a CTQ tree

The CTQ tree helps you take a vague aspiration and give it sharpness, clarity, and direction. But how do you move from the concept of a CTQ tree to an actual, tangible diagram? 

Start with the customer’s voice

  • Initiate the process by collecting feedback from your customers. This could be through surveys, interviews, or focus groups. Remember, the aim is to understand their broad needs and expectations.
  • Once you’ve gathered a substantial amount of feedback, identify and list down the high-level needs. These are the general desires or problems your customers mention, like ‘I wish my phone’s battery lasted longer.’

Branch out into primary requirements

  • Categorize: From the high-level needs, start categorizing them into primary requirements. For instance, ‘longer battery life’ could branch out to ‘battery durability’ and ‘power efficiency.’
  • Involve cross-functional teams: This step often benefits from the insights of various teams, be it engineering, design, or marketing. Different perspectives shed light on nuances you might otherwise miss.

Drill down to specific CTQs

  • Quantify and specify: This is where the rubber meets the road! Convert those primary requirements into specific, measurable CTQs. ‘Battery durability’ might translate to ‘must last for 24 hours on a single charge under moderate use.’
  • Use metrics: Wherever possible, introduce metrics to these CTQs. This gives your team clear targets to aim for. For instance, ‘power efficiency’ could be translated to ‘device should consume not more than X watts per hour during regular use.’

Review and refine

  • Customer validation: Once you’ve drafted your CTQ tree, validate it with a segment of your customers. They might offer perspectives or nuances you hadn’t considered.
  • Iterate: Remember, a CTQ tree isn’t set in stone. As customer preferences evolve or as the market introduces new innovations, revisit and refine your tree. 

Visualize and disseminate

  • Design the tree: Use diagramming tools to visualize your CTQ tree. The visual representation should be clear, with distinct branching to represent the flow from high-level needs to specific CTQs. Using a digital tool for this job makes the whole thing that little bit easier: choose your template, drag and drop icons, share with a click, and update it without starting from scratch. Easy! 
  • Share with stakeholders: Once finalized, ensure that the CTQ tree is accessible to all relevant stakeholders, from product teams to customer support. 

Mastering the CTQ process: steps and best practices

As with most methodologies and strategies, the real power of Critical to Quality (CTQ) comes to life when applied effectively. It’s one thing to understand the importance of it and another to weave it seamlessly into your business fabric. To help bridge this gap, let’s discuss some best practices that can enhance your CTQ journey.

Begin with the voice of the customer

1. Active listening: Engage with your customers through surveys, feedback sessions, and one-on-one interactions. Listen not just for surface-level feedback but for deeper, underlying needs and desires (top tip: do a mix of qualitative and quantitative research for best results). 

2. Continual feedback loops: Customer preferences aren’t static. Ensure you have mechanisms in place for regular feedback, keeping your understanding of CTQs current and relevant.

3. Empathy in communication: Go beyond the mere collection of feedback. By empathizing and resonating with your customers, you’re better poised to truly get their needs.

Translate voice into action

1. Use the CTQ tree: This tool is a must when it comes to CTQ. It breaks down high-level needs into specific, actionable elements, providing a roadmap for teams across your business.

2. Engage cross-functional teams: Make sure you share those insights you got from all your customer research across departments. From product design to marketing, every team should understand and align with the CTQs.

3. Leverage technology: Use data analytics to spot patterns and trends from customer feedback. This can help you locate less obvious CTQs.

Monitor and measure relentlessly

1. Set clear benchmarks: Once you’ve identified your CTQs, establish clear, measurable benchmarks. This ensures the entire organization has clarity on what’s expected.

2. Regular reviews: Periodically assess your performance against the set CTQ benchmarks. This helps you identify gaps and areas for improvement.

3. Feedback integration: After monitoring, loop back the findings to product development and strategy teams. This closed-loop approach ensures learnings are integrated and adjustments are made promptly.

Prioritize training and awareness

1. Organizational alignment: Everyone in the organization, from the top executives to frontline staff, should understand the importance of CTQ. Regular training sessions can keep the concept fresh and central.

2. Celebrate successes: When teams or individuals excel in meeting or exceeding CTQ benchmarks, celebrate their wins. This not only boosts morale but reinforces the importance of CTQ.

3. Incorporate CTQ in onboarding: New employees should be introduced to the CTQ concept from day one. This helps them start their journey with a customer-centric mindset.

Adapt and evolve 

1. Stay flexible: While CTQs provide a structured approach, it’s essential to remain agile. Market dynamics, technological advancements, or even global events can shift customer preferences.

2. Iterative approach: Consider CTQ as an ongoing journey, not a one-time task. Regularly revisit and refine your CTQs, ensuring they mirror the ever-evolving voice of the customer.

3. Collaborate with external partners: Engage with industry experts, consultants, or other stakeholders who can provide a fresh perspective on your CTQs, ensuring a broad and updated approach.


In the spirit of understanding and clarity, let’s address some frequently asked questions about CTQ trees.

Do I really need to do a CTQ tree?

The direct answer? Not always. But here’s the thing: a CTQ tree provides clarity. It helps businesses identify and focus on what truly matters to the customer, translating vague wants into actionable specifics. 

While it might seem like an extra step, the insights gained can streamline processes, foster innovation, and enhance customer satisfaction. So, if you’re keen on ensuring your products or services truly resonate with your audience, a CTQ tree is a powerful tool in your arsenal.

How deep do I need to go when doing the tree?

The depth of a CTQ tree varies based on the complexity of the product or service and the nuances of customer needs. However, a good rule of thumb is to go as deep as necessary until you’ve translated broad needs into measurable, actionable requirements. If you find that a particular level doesn’t offer additional clarity or seems redundant, it might be an indication that you’ve gone deep enough.

How do I tell a key CTQ characteristic from a lesser important CTQ characteristic?

Determining the importance of CTQ characteristics often boils down to customer feedback and business goals. Some characteristics directly impact customer satisfaction and are thus pivotal. These are the ones most frequently mentioned by customers or tied to primary business objectives.

However, lesser important CTQ characteristics, while not as central, still play a role in shaping the overall experience. They might not be deal-breakers but can serve as delightful bonuses that further endear customers to your product or service. Prioritization techniques can help you distinguish between primary and secondary CTQs.

Are there any tools I can use to make the job easier?

Absolutely! Diagramming software is your secret weapon here. Cacoo, our own tool, offers intuitive drag-and-drop interfaces, customizable templates, and sharing features to make the process quicker, easier, and more collaborative.

Why are these tools handy? 

1. Visualization: CTQ trees, at their core, are visual tools. These diagramming platforms provide clarity, making the tree easier to interpret and share.

2. Collaboration: Especially in cross-functional teams, having a tool that allows multiple stakeholders to contribute and review in real-time is a boon.

3. Flexibility: As customer feedback evolves or as more data becomes available, these tools allow for easy modifications, ensuring your CTQ tree remains relevant and current.

Dipping your toes into the CTQ waters might seem daunting, but remember, it’s all about understanding your customers better. With every branch and leaf of your CTQ tree, you’re not just mapping out requirements; you’re charting a course to more meaningful, impactful customer interactions. And with the right tools and mindset, this journey is not only enlightening but truly transformative.



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